North Vate :
The North Vate volcano is located in the open sea north of the island of Efate.
The remaining edges of this volcano correspond to the islands Nguna, Pele and Emao which define a great underwater caldera.
These islands, formed from the Pleistocene to the Holocene, present cones with well preserved craters.
Large pumice deposits on Efate Island (Efate Pumice Formation), but also on the Hat and Lelepa Islands to the north, suggest a major eruption north of the island a million years ago large underwater caldera.
The island of Nguna shows four NNO-SSE aligned volcanoes with volcanic centers of Na Ora Matua, Taputora, Marao and Aroon. The absence of clinopyroxene phenocrysts indicate that it is islands were attached to Efate before the major eruption.
An earthquake of magnitude 5.0 occurred at the North Vate volcano on January 26, 2016.(© Smithsonian Institution – John Seach)